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What is the “current macroeconomic situation” in the U.S. (e.g. is the U.S. economy currently concerned about unemployment Answer

Question: What is the “current macroeconomic situation” in the U.S. (e.g. is the U.S. economy currently concerned about unemployment, inflation, recession, etc.)? What fiscal policies and monetary policies would be appropriate at this time? Write your individual answers to the questions listed above together in essay format (minumum of 300 words combined in APA style), using correct economic terms covered in the discussions. If you only write 300 words, you probably won’t be able to fully answer the questions. Use the APA Template in Doc Sharing as a guide. You will also find the grading rubric for this assignment in Doc Sharing. Key concepts to include in your paper–data trends on unemployment, inflation, GDP growth, expansionary fiscal policy tools, FOMC, easy money policy tools and other terms from this class. You must use at least one article. Note: The textbook is not an article and cannot be the only source for the assignments. Use the DeVry Library as a resource for finding your references.



The United States macroeconomic situation is one of manufactured uncertainty. The US economy is at the end of the greatest economic experimentation of our lifetime. Financial leaders are grappling with how to return to self-sustaining economic performance, in hopes that the economy can perform without artificial stimulation. The 2007-2008 economic malaise resulted from a number of market manipulations at several key market areas. The US opted for economic stimulation to combat the simultaneous collapse of several financial and business institutions, a collapse in stock market and real property values, and high unemployment over 10% due to layoffs of millions of workers (Lenzner, 2012). The US faced a ‘perfect storm’ of deflating prices and values of assets, reductions in demand for workers, and a collapse of a number of financial institutions. The most lingering economic action was FOMC selling securities at absurdly high quantities to drive US Treasury interest rates down to near zero. This economic tool has never been used to this extent for this long, and removing the easy money from the economy may not be easy. Using this economic expansion tool allowed for debts to be refinanced, new projects to be undertaken, and both businesses and households to restructure their finances. Those rates have remained artificially low for years. The Federal Reserve has been trying for more than a year to raise rates, to remove the artificial sweetener in the economic coffee. They have tried with public notices, what some would call ‘trial balloons’, each of which sent negative shock waves through the financial markets. Their recent public policy disclosures, suggesting September 2015 as the start of a series of interest rate hikes, have been met with less resistance. Unemployment rates are now measured at half of the 2010 highs of 10% (Trading Economics, 2015). While the rate is now lower, it is lower for several reasons not normally mentioned. First, the definition of unemployed was revised to extend the period of unemployment duration. (Hampson, 2010). Second, although unemployment benefits were extended, in some cases for nearly two years (99 weeks), people have had to return to whatever work they could find. Thirdly, some ‘long term unemployed’ are now deemed unnecessary to the formula to determine unemployment, and are removed from consideration, reducing the ‘real’ unemployment rate. It seems when the statistics aren’t telling a good story, changing how they are measured will do.

Businesses and households able to do so have restructured their finances with this lower cost debt. Home sales and values have returned to pre-malaise levels, and stock market investors have likely regained the declines in their portfolios.

These steps have been taken in similar measure by many other countries seeking to stimulate their economies. Japan has been doing this for decades and pledges to continue, and China only recently saw the folly in artificially stimulating its stock market with easy credit. The United States has used interest rate policy for decades to control inflation. Inflation of near 2% is considered normal, and we are not at that level yet, which might suggest a delay in rate hikes may be appropriate (Coin News, 2015).

References Lenzner, R. “The 2008 Meltdown And Where The Blame Falls”, Forbes Magazine, June 2, 2012. Retrieved 8/15/15 from: Trading Economics, United States Unemployment Rate, 2005-2015. Retrieved 8-15-15 from: Hampson, R., “U. S. Changes how It measures long-term unemployment”, USA Today, 12-28-10. Retrieved 8-15-15 from: Coin News Media Group LLC, US Inflation Calculator, retrieved 8-15-15 from:

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What competitive advantage does technology give to business? How does aging hardware affect this advantage Answer

What competitive advantage does technology give to business? How does aging hardware affect this advantage?

Technology gives businesses a very competitive edge through the use of computers, systems, networks, and a variety of software and hardware to manage business, handle departments, and even apply support and information through a web presence. However, there are other areas to consider other than simply just hardware and software. Technology is only as useful as a solid business plan. The use of technology should fit the business plan or model to be both efficient and effective. Organization and maintaining policies can also keep and effective and efficient file management through the use of file share or even an intranet. Technology also helps companies visualize information to make it more understandable and easier to analyze. The proper use of technology enables businesses to be more efficient. Our recent research into technology for business innovation found that 56 percent indicate innovative technology is very important, yet only 9 percent are very satisfied with theirs, showing plenty of room for improvement (Smith, 2013). Other uses of technology include using big data to manage and use information, business analytics, business and social collaboration, cloud computing, mobile technology, and social media. Getting back into hardware, it is important that a company considers the future of technology when purchasing new hardware and always consider what is the best choice for the business overall. Aging or outdated hardware can actually hold a company back from gaining a competitive edge through newer hardware and practices used by their competitors. Keeping outdated equipment running properly by servicing it constantly ends up costing companies more than if they had just purchased newer, more advanced equipment and also can cause security holes (Lester, 2010).

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The Door Company manufactures doors. Classify each of the following quality costs as prevention costs Answer

The Door Company manufactures doors. Classify each of the following quality costs as prevention costs Answer

Problem 1 –
The Door Company manufactures doors. Classify each of the following quality costs as prevention costs, appraisal costs, internal failure costs, or external failure costs (13 points)
a. Retesting of reworked products
b. Downtime due to quality problems
c. Analysis of the cause of defects in production
d. Depreciation of test equipment
e. Warranty repairs
f. Lost sales arising from a reputation for poor quality
g. Quality circles
h. Rework direct manufacturing labor and overhead
i. Net cost of spoilage
j. Technical support provided to suppliers
k. Audits of the effectiveness of the quality system
l. Plant utilities in the inspection area
m. Reentering data because of keypunch errors

Problem 2 – For supply item ABC, Andrews Company has been ordering 125 units based on the recommendation of the salesperson who calls on the company monthly. A new purchasing agent has been hired by the company who wants to start using the economic-order-quantity method and its supporting decision elements. She has gathered the following information:

Annual demand in units 250
Days used per year 250
Lead time, in days 10
Ordering costs $100
Annual unit carrying costs $20

Determine the EOQ, average inventory, orders per year, average daily demand, reorder point, annual ordering costs, and annual carrying costs (17 points)
1. (TCO 11) Nonfinancial measures for internal quality performance include all but which of the following? (Points: 3)
Employee empowerment
Process yields
Product defect levels
2. (TCO 11) Which of the following is NOT a nonfinancial performance measure for customer satisfaction? (Points: 3)
Number of defective units shipped to customers as a percentage of the total units of product shipped
Number of customer complaints
On-time delivery
Number of defects for each product line
3. (TCO 11) Which of the following is NOT one of the steps in managing bottlenecks under the theory of constraints? (Points: 3)
Identify the bottleneck resource by searching for resources with large quantities of inventory waiting to be worked on.
Increase the efficiency and capacity of the nonbottleneck resources.
Subordinate all nonbottleneck operations to the bottleneck operation.
Increase the efficiency and capacity of the bottleneck operation.
4. (TCO 11) Design engineering is an example of: (Points: 3)
external failure costs
internal failure costs
prevention costs
appraisal costs
5. (TCO 11) Regal Products has a budget of $900,000 in 20X6 for prevention costs. If it decides to automate a portion of its prevention activities, it will save $60,000 in variable costs. The new method will require $18,000 in training costs and $120,000 in annual equipment costs. Management is willing to adjust the budget for an amount up to the cost of the new equipment. The budgeted production level is 150,000 units. Appraisal costs for the year are budgeted at $600,000. The new prevention procedures will save appraisal costs of $30,000. Internal failure costs average $15 per failed unit of finished goods. The internal failure rate is expected to be 3% of all completed items. The proposed changes will cut the internal failure rate by one-third. Internal failure units are destroyed. External failure costs average $54 per failed unit. The company’s average external failures average 3% of units sold. The new proposal will reduce this rate by 50%. Assume all units produced are sold and there are no ending inventories. How much will internal failure costs change if the internal product failures are reduced by 50% with the new procedures? (Points: 3)
$500,000 decrease
$750,000 decrease
$33,750 decrease
$67,500 decrease

Internal failure rate (150,000 x 0.03) 4,500
Cost per unit x $15
Total $67,500
Savings rate x 0.50
Savings $33,750
6. (TCO 12) Which of the following categories of costs are important when managing inventories of goods for sale according to the authors of the text? (Points: 3)
Purchasing, ordering, supply, spoilage, and opportunity
Purchasing, stockout carrying, ordering, and quality
Buying, holding, invoicing, opportunity, and investment
Supply, obsolescence, holding, stockout, and transportation-in
7. (TCO 12) Obsolescence is an example of which cost category? (Points: 3)
ordering costs
carrying costs
labor costs
quality costs
8. (TCO 12) Which of the following is an assumption of the economic-order-quantity decision model? (Points: 3)
There will be timely labor costs.
The quantity ordered can vary at each reorder point.
No stockouts occur.
Demand ordering costs and carrying costs fluctuate.
9. (TCO 12) ) The ________ describes the flow of goods, services, and information from the initial sources of materials and services to the delivery of products to consumers. (Points: 3)
supply chain
material requirements plan (MRP)
customer list
enterprise requirements plan (ERP)
10. (TCO 12) Liberty Celebrations, Inc., manufactures a line of flags. The annual demand for its flag display is estimated to be 100,000 units. The annual cost of carrying one unit in inventory is $1.60, and the cost to initiate a production run is $30. There are no flag displays on hand but Liberty had scheduled 60 equal production runs of the display sets for the coming year, the first of which is to be run immediately. Liberty Celebrations has 250 business days per year. Assume that sales occur uniformly throughout the year and that production is instantaneous. If Liberty Celebrations does not maintain a safety stock, the estimated total carrying cost for the flag displays for the coming year is the estimated total setup cost for the flag displays for the coming year is (Points: 3)


To get the answer for the above tutorial, please click on the below purchase link.


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Assume that Country A has a population of 500,000 and only produces one good—cars Answer

Assume that Country A has a population of 500,000 and only produces one good—cars. Country A produces 100,000 cars per year. The people in Country A purchase 90,000 cars, but there are not enough cars to fulfill all the demand. They decide to import 50,000 more. The government buys 25,000 cars for its police force, and 10,000 cars are bought by companies to transport employees to other locations to work. They also export 65,000 cars to nearby countries for sale.

What is Country A’s GDP?

What is the composition of GDP by percentage?

What is the GDP per capita?

How does this relate to Keynesian economics?

Part II Go to the Bureau of Economic Analysis on the Department of Commerce’s Web site, and look up the latest new release for real GDP. Address the following questions after reading the latest release:

Where are we in the business cycle?

What is the real GDP today?

What is the largest component of GDP?

What is the smallest component of GDP?

What is the fastest growing component of GDP and why?

What components of GDP were involved in the change from last month to this month?

What is the price index today?

What caused the change?





Population = 500,000

Consumption C = 90,000 cars

Import = 50,000

Government expenditure G = 25,000 cars

Business Investment I = 10,000 cars

Export = 65,000 cars

 What is Country A’s GDP?

GDP is calculated as:

GDP = C+I+G+Net Export

GDP = C+I+G+(Export – Import)

= 90,000+10,000+25,000+(65,000-50,000) = 140,000 cars

What is the composition of GDP by percentage?

Percentage of consumption = C/GDP = 90,000/140,000 = 64.29%

Percentage of business investment = I/GDP = 7.14%

Percentage of Government expenditure = G/GDP = 17.85%

Percentage of net export = (Export-Import)/GDP = 10.71%

What is the GDP per capita?

GDP Per capita = GDP/Population = 140,000/500,000 = 0.28 cars

If government purchases go up in the short run, what happens to GDP?

Government Purchase (G) is an important component of GDP. When G goes up, GDP also increases. But, in short run increase in government spending may not have significant impact on GDP as supply may not increase to meet increased government purchases. To meet the increased demand from government, country will have to import. Thus, positive impact of increase in government purchase would be partially negated by increase in import (as increase in import reduces net export). But in long term, domestic supply will increase to meet increased demand from government. This will reduce import and increase GDP significantly.

If consumption and government purchases go up, what happens to GDP in the long run? Why?

Increase in consumption (C ) and government purchases (G) increases GDP in long run. To meet the increased demand from consumers and government, production is increased. Increase in production increases business investment (I). The increase in production also increases employment opportunities and hence disposable income in the hands of consumers increases. The consumers spend a part of the increased income on consumption (which is determined by MPC), and hence consumption further increases. In long run, the GDP will increase significantly.


Where are we in the business cycle?

A business cycle is defined as a process by which the economy grows, contracts, and recovers over time. An economy goes through all these phases and process repeats itself. An economy grows in expansion phase and reaches peak. After that it begins to contract and reaches trough, and then again recovers and starts growing.

Presently we are in recovery phase of business cycle. After financial crisis of 2008 and recent debt crisis in Eurozone, economy is recovering. Demand has started to rise, production has increased, unemployment level has come down. Businesses have become optimistic and started investing. Consumer confidence level has gone up. . Real GDP has increased by 2.5 percent in the second quarter of 2013. The price index also rose by 0.9% in second quarter quarter. Real personal consumption expenditure increased by 2.7% during second quarter. (BEA, 2013) Thus, we are in recovery phase of business cycle.


What is the real GDP today?

The real GDP of USA is $13.75 trillion.

What is the largest component of GDP?

The largest component of GDP is personal consumption ($9.75 trillion)

What is the smallest component of GDP?

The smallest component of GDP is Net Export. Net export of USA is negative.

What is the fastest growing component of GDP and why?

The fastest growing component of GDP is Gross private domestic investment. In recovery phase, businesses become optimistic and invest more. The government policies are also supportive,. So, business investment grows at high rate. .

What components of GDP were involved in the change from last month to this month?

The main contributors in change in GDP from last month to this month are personal consumption expenditure, and Gross private domestic investment.

What is the price index today?

Price index today: 116.416

What caused the change?

Personal consumption expenditures (2.4%), Gross private domestic investment (1.16%), Net export (-0.21%), Import (1.9%), Government consumption and gross investment (-0.97%)




BEA. (2013). National Income and Product Accounts; Gross Domestic Product, 1st quarter 2013 (second estimate);Corporate Profits, 1st quarter 2013 (preliminary estimate). Retrieved From:


BEA(2013). National Data. Retrieved From:


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The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave was written in first person, while the Narrative of Sojourner Truth was in third person Answer

During the mid 1800s, slave narratives became an important literary forum for abolitionists. The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave was written in first person, while the Narrative of Sojourner Truth was in third person. Explain what effect these two different points of view might have on a 19th century reading audience in communicating the authors’ purposes.

Both Frederick Douglass’ autobiographical Narrative and Mark Twain’s fictional Adventures of Huckleberry Finn were written in opposition to slavery. Compare the passages of these two male authors and describe any similarities and/or differences you see in the tone and style of the two authors.

Both Sojourner Truth’s autobiographical Narrative and Harriet Beecher Stowe’s fictional Uncle Tom’s Cabin were written in opposition to slavery. Compare the passages of these two female authors and describe any similarities and/or differences you see in the tone and style of the two authors’ works.



During the mid 1800s, slave narratives became an important literary forum for abolitionists. The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave was written in first person, while the Narrative of Sojourner Truth was in third person. Explain what effect these two different points of view might have on a 19th century reading audience in communicating the authors’ purposes.


Both Frederick Douglass’ autobiographical Narrative and Mark Twain’s fictional Adventures of Huckleberry Finn were written in opposition to slavery. Compare the passages of these two male authors and describe any similarities and/or differences you see in the tone and style of the two authors.


Both Sojourner Truth’s autobiographical Narrative and Harriet Beecher Stowe’s fictional Uncle Tom’s Cabin were written in opposition to slavery. Compare the passages of these two female authors and describe any similarities and/or differences you see in the tone and style of the two authors’ works.


In my opinion An American Slave was much easier to read and seemed to be more interesting in that it was first person. We learned of his first hand experiences and how he felt he was wronged. For example, he mentioned that he did not understand why he was not allowed to confront his master and ask him how old he was. All he could do was estimate based on conversation and speculation. The writer also lost his mother at a young age that he could not see very often. I feel as though the piece An American Slave is more captivating and believable in that it his real life experiences.


The bases of these two writings are very similar although Twains book is a fictional novel. They both are very interesting in that they are talking about their experiences in a first person point of view. I also feel as though this goes after two different audiences. Twain’s book is fictional and Douglass’s is an autobiography. Douglass’s autobiography states the facts on what happens and writes based on feelings, emotions and how he feels he was wronged. I feel as though it does grasp the attention but not in the same way Twain creates his characters as a means to tell a story. They both have a common ground in attempting to paint a picture in your mind but the difference is perspective.


Clearly both Sojourner and Stowe both had different perspectives on each of their writings. Similarly to the previous two I find Sojourner’s personal experiences far more compelling. With that said though we are only given a small excerpt of each writing. Based on the style of Uncles Tom’s Cabin it would be hard to judge based off of a couple paragraphs in that it is about the lives of three slaves. The author of a novel seems to spend more time in painting a complete picture of all the details whereas the autobiographies concentrate on experiences and reality.



Sayre, H. M. (2011). The Humanities: Culture, Continuity and Change (Vol. 2). New York: Pearson Education. Retrieved October 16, 2013














In my view, the story narration style plays a major role on the impact that it has on viewers. First person account of a story is going to be very authentic and it will be one’s own feelings, thoughts and emotions being projected from the story where as the third person account is going to be someone else’s story and would be based on the data collection and observations made by the author. A third-person narrative like Sojourner Truth’s would be guided by the common themes prevailing in the society or common problems of slavery such as separation of families, hard labor and horrific sexual exploitation etc. So while the third person account may lack the polish of Douglass’s first person narratives, their impact on a reader might be even greater because of the unique problems faced by people undergoing slavery.


Douglass’s life narrative is an autobiographical narrative whereas Mark Twain’s “Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” is the fictional popular novel. They both wrote about the nature of racism and the practice of slavery. By portraying African-American characters, Douglass and Twain both tried to expose the hypocrisy of white Americans who believed themselves to be highly civilized and moral being. Both tried to convey that racism and slavery not only harmed African-Americans, but also those who practiced slavery. Twain makes the hypocrisy of slavery more searing than it is in Douglass’s real-life account. Douglass, in his autobiographical narrative, and Twain, in his novel, helped to redefine what civilized white society was, by exposing and condemning the hypocrisy of racism.


The similarity between Sojourner and Stowe’s literature lies in the fact that both of them gave the third person account of plight of slaves and revealed the grave issue of slavery that were imposed upon the African American slaves. Both these female writers described the inhumanity of the slave owners and how it destroyed the slaves physically and psychologically. The equaling of slavery to anti-Christ has been another issue that establishes a similarity between these two narratives. Because of Stowe’s work, thousands rallied to the anti-slavery cause.



Sayre, H. M. (2011). The Humanities: Culture, Continuity and Change (Vol. 2). New York: Pearson Education.













I think there are two major elements that contributed to the difference in perspective used in the writing of these two narratives. In the case of “The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave”, the first person voice was used because the book was written by Mr. Douglass himself. As such, it lends itself most appropriately to being written in the first person. In the case of “The Narrative of Sojourner Truth”, this story was dictated by Ms. Truth to her friend Olive Gilbert. As such, the writing of this story naturally lent itself better to a third person perspective, as it was being interpreted and documented by someone other than the person who lived the experiences. The other major factor that affects the choice of perspective would be, I believe, the genders of the two storytellers. Given the time and social environments of the writing of these books, I would venture to guess that the public at the time was more open to embracing the harsh realities of the story of a slave in the first person from a man rather than a woman. In a sense, it was almost more socially acceptable for the man to have articulated his own story, an act of assertion, than for the woman. Society in the mid-18th century still liked to view women as being the more passive, frail, and submissive gender. As such, Ms. Truth’s story was better told in the third person, which allowed for her character in her story to be viewed externally, as the object of slavery and degradation. Somehow, I think the society of that time found it easier to stomach the story of the humiliation and oppression of slavery as told by the one who experienced it if the one who experienced it and is relaying the story is male.


Frederick Douglass was born a slave and became educated, and eventually free, at great personal cost and through much adversity. Samuel Clemens, otherwise known as Mark Twain, was the son of a lawyer and judge in Missouri, and while he never received an advanced education at any formal institution, he did educate himself while living and working as a typesetter for a newspaper in New York City by visiting the New York Public Library in the evenings after work. Mr. Twain’s path toward literacy, and literary success, was far less troublesome than Mr. Douglass’. Whereas Mr. Douglass faced the threat of death or vicious mutilation because of his literacy, Mr. Twain developed his literacy as a matter of professional necessity (a typesetter who cannot spell or understand grammar and punctuation is pretty well out of luck). As such, it stands to reason that Mr. Douglass would always treat his writings with a more somber tone and more serious approach. Mr. Twain, on the other hand, not only writing his own work, but also seeing the writings of countless others pass before him at the printing press, learned early on that humor and frivolity could make for some of the most memorable writing. Mr. Twain infused his writing with wit and sarcasm as ways to make his subversive messages about the moral vacuousness of slavery and the general foolishness of many of the tropes of the Southern lifestyle of his youth more easily accepted by his readers, as well as more memorable and desirable to share and discuss. In short, Frederick Douglass wrote with a seriousness and severity that befit the struggle he had to undergo in order to become able to write down his experiences. Mark Twain, on the other hand, made use of more humorous literary techniques and approaches in order to underscore the messages he sought to communicate regarding slavery, as well as ensure that his writings achieved popular success.


Sojourner Truth’s autobiography and Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel both decry the institution of slavery. However, the approaches taken are very different. Sojourner Truth sought to impress upon people the terrible reality of the life of a slave by giving a factual account of her own life experiences. The fact that the contents of her narrative are all actual events that occurred to a real person are meant to lend the weight necessary for this story to impress upon its readers the message that slavery is not only wrong, but deplorable and execrable. “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” was a novel, a fictional story fabricated by a white woman who had never been a slave herself. Despite the fantastical origin of the story, its message was still clearly articulated, if not more so because of the added drama. Mrs. Stowe used dramatic storytelling to create a tale that enthralled her readers and humanized a sector of the populations that, in practice, was often considered to be inhuman. Of course, considering African slaves to be less than human was a key necessity to those who wanted to keep slavery going. It would not do to have the prospective buyers of slaves believing that the slaves were suffering and enduring soul-shattering torment in their captivity. Fortunately, both women’s stories helped to achieve the same goal, despite their very different means.



Douglass, F. (1818). Documenting the American South. Retrieved 10 29, 2013, from Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. Written by Himself.:








Even though Fredrick Douglas and Sojourner Truth told theirs their stories from different points of view, I believe they were both effective in communicating their purpose to the 19th century audiences. We’re studying and taking about today so it’s obvious that people listened to them. Though as dignified and both were, I’m sure they were still treated like every other negro by white men during that time. Sure they were well respected in certain environments, but they knew the harsh conditions that existed for black people as a whole. Fredrick Douglas and Mark Twain both wrote on opposition to slavery but from very different perspectives Douglas, himself a slave, wrote of first hand events – such as the instance when he’d had enough an fought back against his master – with the satisfaction and defiance that could only be expressed by someone who had gone through the events. Though a fiction novel, Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn adequately describes the though process and attitudes of white’s in the South at the time. At the same time, Twain ridicules those with racist views towards blacks. Both authors portray slavery in a bad light. In the comparison of Truth’s, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, and Harriet Beecher Stowe’s, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, they both approach slavery from very different view points. Truth’s passage suggests the attitude of rebellion and disgust from first-hand experience of being a slave while Stowe’s passage express the more palatable aspects of slavery – such as enlightening slaves on Christianity and tales of married slaves that defy the odds and escape to freedom.



Sayre, H. M. (2011). The Humanities: Culture, Continuity and Change (Vol. II). Boston: Pearson Education.









Fredrick Douglas and his writtings probably affected people by making them understand what it is they had to go through as slaves. This seems to be more believable because it is written directly from the source, leaving people to relate more. The Narrative of Sojourner Truth was only partly authentic as someone named Oliver Gilbert tells the story in his own words a lot of the times. With this it might not seem as genuine as Fredrick Douglass’ writtings because of first person versus third person stories. The Narrative of Sojourner seemed to tell of the struggles of women in the 1800’s and probably touched a lot of people. However, how much of this was really how it was? Although, both Douglas and Sojourner Truth knew what it was like to deal with slavery and the challenges they faced.


Fredrick Douglass’ autobiographical and Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn both talk a lot about slavery and trying to break free from it. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn seem to have a ton of expressing their readiness for freedom but at times left me afraid for Jim . Although, the tone of Huckleberry Finn seemed a little more intense because of the confusion Huckleberry Finn faced. Huckleberry Finn wasn’t sure whether he wanted to turn Jim in or if he wanted to continue to help him try and reach freedom. Fredrick Douglas seem to have a bit of a different angle but same concept. Fredrick Douglas seem to deal with slavery head on as he fought back against his master. Although, I feel both stories had good points and expressed the need for the abolishment of slavery for good.














The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave and The Narrative of Sojourner Truth both show the miserable conditions of the African American slaves. Frederick Douglass’ narrative showed a firsthand experience of the aweful life that the slaves had to suffer from. Truth’s narrative spoke of the importance of the liberation of black women.


The primary similarity between these two pieces of literature lies in the fact that both of them revealed the inhuman oppressions that were imposed upon the African American slaves. Both the narratives describe the inhumanity of the slave owners and both of them conveyed the hope for the ultimate freedom of the slaves from their wretched conditions. And moreover, in the portrayal of the central characters too there are similarities to be found between these two narratives. Both Douglass and Jim escaped to run away from the miseries of slavery.


One similarity found between the narratives of Sojounrner Truth and Harriet Beecher Stowe is that both of the authors told the story in a third person point of view. I believe they did this to draw the attention of their readers to the issue of slavery and to urge them to take steps to help end slavery forever. Both Truth and Stowe composed their narratives to make their readers aware of the nature of the slave owners who not only devastated the slaves physically but psychologically too. Both authors also compare slavery to anti-Christ.


Sayre, H. M. (2011). The Humanities: Culture, Continuity and Change (Vol. 2). New York: Pearson Education



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Examine three (3) of Karl Marx’s contributions to economic theory and determine how they still impact contemporary economics Answer

Examine three (3) of Karl Marx’s contributions to economic theory and determine how they still impact contemporary economics.

Karl Marx’s contributions to economic theory

1) An ideal economic system would involve exchanges of equal value for equal value, where value is determined simply by the amount of work put into whatever is being produced. Capitalism interrupts this ideal by introducing a profit motive — a desire to produce an uneven exchange of lesser value for greater value.

2) A laborer might produce enough value to feed his family in two hours of work, but he keeps at the job for a full day, in Marx’s time, that might be 12 or 14 hours. Those extra hours represent the surplus value produced by the worker. The owner of the factory did nothing to earn this, but exploits it nevertheless and keeps the difference as profit.

3) In this context, Communism thus has two goals: First it is supposed to explain these realities to people unaware of them; second it is supposed to call people in the labor classes to prepare for the confrontation and revolution.

Karl Marx contributed to economic theory the centralization of capital and concentration of wealth. He stated the falling rate of profit is but one of the insoluble problems of capitalism (Brue & Grant, 2007) . Second the tendency for increasingly sever business crises. (Page 182) He also contributed his theory of “The Law of Motion of Capitalism” and the labor theory of value. He argues that labor is the source of all value and is the starting point to his theory. Marx’s approach to the tendency of the rate of profit to fall was unique. It is rooted in his distinction between constant capital, which merely conserves its existing value—hence the term constant capital—and variable capital, which not only reproduces its existing value but produces surplus value, the sole source of profits and rents including interest and all the secondary incomes that derive from them. There are various forces that counteract the fall in the rate of profit. The rise in the productivity of labor tends to lead to a rise in the rate of surplus value that counteracts the fall in the rate of profit. Second, as the productivity of labor rises, the elements—the commodities—that make up the constant capital, also fall in value.


Deepankar Basu, Panayiotis T. Manolako (2007). Is There a Tendency for the Rate of Profit to Fall? Econometric Evidence for the U.S. Economy. University of Massachusetts – Economics Department Working Paper Series Economics.

Karl Marx appeared to have very similar ideas as it relates to the rate of falling profit. He appeared to agree with not only Ricardo but also Adam Smith and Mill to some extent. Karl Marx believed that the potential destruction of capitalism would be due to a falling rate of profit. Ricardo, Smith, and Mill also predicted that a rate of profit would also fall but over an extended period of time. Marx recognized that under capitalism wages were determined by labor markets, Marx concluded that wages would at first increase and reduce profits, but that capitalists would then eventually use laborsaving technology to to put human workers in competition with machines, thereby driving back down the price of labor.

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bell rings, signaling a new day in Mrs. Brooks’ 2nd grade classroom. As the students quietly enter the room Answer

In the following scenario, determine which level of behavior management is addressed and describe the factors involved that led you to these conclusions:    Scenario Two – DQ2 The bell rings, signaling a new day in Mrs. Brooks’ 2nd grade classroom. As the students quietly enter the room, they go directly to their lockers, put away all of their personal items, and take out their daily folders, which they place in a special daily folder basket next to the doorway. Students then choose a book for independent, silent reading at their desks until the morning announcements begin. Mrs. Brooks moves around the room handing out tickets (which may later be traded in for prizes) to students who are on task. After the announcements, Mrs. Brooks calls the class to the rug in an open area of the room for the morning meeting. Josh is chosen from a set of cards as the Student of the Day. Michael is upset that Josh is chosen over him, and complains that it is unfair. Mrs. Brooks moves into close proximity to Michael and reminds him that everyone will get an opportunity to be the Student of the Day and that his turn will be coming soon. As Michael continues to complain, Mrs. Brooks calmly gives him a warning, which is the next step in her classroom behavior management plan, then proceeds with the routine. Michael continues to interrupt the class and is instructed to turn his card from green to yellow, meaning that he will miss 10 minutes of recess later in the day. For the rest of the morning meeting, Michael behaves appropriately  





This scenario is seated firmly in the first level, inclusive proactive management activities. Several factors are present which led to this belief. Routines are firmly established and have specific steps, the teacher is calm and all seems well organized. A system of positive behavior recognition is in place. The teacher is alert, uses proximity control with a positive reminder and then, after that is unsuccessful, utilizes an established tangible behavior management plan to which the rules and expectations have been explained.


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How do you manage requirements and prevent “scope creep”Answer

Project foundations (operational requirements, system requirements, design constraints, and software requirements) determine the scope of work to be accomplished in a project. I have seen situations where the project was constrained by scope and schedule. How do you manage requirements and prevent “scope creep?”

Scope creep is every project team’s nightmare. Scope creep happens when a project team is no longer capably of controlling the growth or changes defined in the scope. This is why is very important to define and have all the stakeholders understand and agree to the scope of the project, including what’s out of scope. We all do understand that there may be requirement and requested changes that may occur during the life cycle of the project. But the project team should have a well defined change control policy in place to help address such situations. Request changes should be well documented in a change control log which should then be reviewed and addressed by the change control team. Final decisions should be made on not just if the changes fall within scope but also the impact of the requirement and or requested change on the overall timeline and cost.

scope creep is the worst thing that can happen in a project. Although all things are inevitable, situations occur that are out of our control, we must know that there are risk involved, no matter how hard we try to keep the project within its deadlines. When you working within a project scope you have a set schedule that is provided within a budget. Everything you do within a project is accounted for based on you WBS (work breakdown structure). If something is added by the client, this will cost the project money. If the supplier/vendor/manufacturer is not on time with a shipment and the project has a deadline, this will create additional cost for the project. Once the scope, schedule and budget have been impacted you have a major problem.

Project Scope creep has many different names such as focus creep, feature creep, function creep, and requirement creep. Project scope creep in project management refers to uncontrolled changes or added objectives in a project’s scope. This phenomenon can occur when the scope of a project is not properly documented, defined, or controlled. It is generally considered a negative occurrence, and thus, should be avoided.

I do agree that Scope Creep can be a nightmare. If requirements change, I would evaluate the project and look at deadlines, deliverables, costs, etc. Most important is to evaluate how the change in requirements will affect the critical path aka the key indicator to determine if the project will be on schedule or will be late. If Scope Creep causes the critical path to change so the project will be late, I would call a meeting to look at options: Increase resources, cut back on features, adjust schedule for resource optimization, etc. Key is good communication and coordination. If stakeholders and sponsors understand and accept the consequences of their new requirements, then the project can be adjusted accordingly.

Scope creep is unavoidable, but it can be mitigated. By fully understanding the project vision and priorities of the stake holders then scope creep can be relegated. Having clear deliverables and milestones goes a long way in preventing scope creep.

Sometimes scope creep sneaks up on us and sometimes we simply don’t focus enough! Either way it is the same ending….   over schedule, over budget and quality may be greatly impacted! how often do you update the team on milestones and tasks? Do you hold regular meetings? What seems to be the best time for your team to meet?

Milestones and task updates should happen at every scheduled meeting. It should be included in the agenda with the expected completion date and a status. Meeting times should be defined and agreed on by the project team as part of the communication plan. Project team should decide on a date and time that works for the majority of the team members as a start. But the project team may have to change the times down the road so it works for the stakeholders that may be involved at that stage of the project.

Based on a study, one of the best times is Tuesday 3pm.

When Is the Best Time to Conduct Meetings and Important Business?

In most of the training sessions I attended, they recommend mid-morning meetings work best. At my current job, meeting occur anytime. In my experience, any meeting at the end of the day is worst and most likely to be cancelled or skipped.

Scope Creep is a possibility anytime you have people involved. So that is pretty much always. It is very likely that a project is planned out and ready to start work and the requirements change or like Villa stated the vendors are late or don’t have the part. Scope creep only becomes a problem when the customer is sitting around waiting for a deadline that has been blown out of the water. An article I read on sums up five steps to help eliminate scope creep.

  1. The requirements must be documented. Especially if the requirements have changed. These notes are important to note that way everyone is on the same page.
  2. A change Control must be set up. This way changes are not just flying by the seat of the pants.
  3. Create a clear project schedule. This eliminates surprises.
  4. Verify the scope with stakeholders
  5. Talk with the project team

How does scope creep happen? Are we not managing to requirements? or are we managing to the customer?

Poor planning will eventually lead to a potential scope creep. Lack of knowledge of what you want and what it will take to get the job done and the absence of a well defined change control are the major causes of scope creep. There is no doubt that managing scope creep can be challenging but allowing it to spin out of control can be disastrous to the project as well. Every opportunity should be explored to help minimize if not eliminate uncontrollable situations. I also think managing the requirements is as important as managing the customer. Expectations should be set at the start of the project with all the stakeholders. poor planning has the biggest impact of scope creep.   Knowing so much information from the beginning what the customer wants somehow can prevent some of the scope creep. But life is not perfect and customers wont really know what they really want until project start start to become reality. On the other hand, I think we are managing to the customer more that we should which I really do understand. Now a days, cash is hard to find so anything to save a project we will do. Sponsors do not grant extra funds that easily in scope creep cases so Brenda has a good point with proposing her disagreement.

To be brief the scope creep is a result of poor scope management. Any insufficient effort on the following listed processes will enhance the risk of scope creep while managing projects. But scope creep could be considered as one of the project risks and a contingency plan to be developed for any given risk of scope creep .The required budget could be set aside in project contingency if a scope creeps happens.

1) Not having a sufficient/practical scope management plan.

2) Unclear scope management process

3) Insufficient collect requirements process from stakeholders

4) unclear and not well completed WBS and work breakdown dictionary (the work breakdown structure can best be thought as an effective aid for stakeholders communication)

I addition, the process of verifying scope (the process of a progressive scope verification in compliance with the stakeholders requirements) and control scope is in most when preventing scope creep.

Scope creep usually is a combination of both, but when the customer becomes uncontrollable with changes scope creep becomes a huge factor. Without putting in boundries such as change control mechanisms the customer can change the requirements and scope of the project day to day so to speak. So managing to the customer is can get you in trouble once the requirements have been defined and agreed upon.

Scope creep can happen a number of ways. Below are some situations that can cause scope creep:

Poor Requirements Analysis: Customers don’t always know what they want

Not Involving the Users Early Enough: Thinking you know what the users want or need

Underestimating the Complexity of the Project: Nobody knows what to expect, there are no lessons learned and no one to ask.

Lack of Change Control: it is important to design a process to manage these changes

Gold Plating: This term is given to the practice of exceeding the scope of a project in the belief that value is being added

How can monitoring the project help to minimize this?

Controlling the scope of your project begins before the first line of code is written. Every development effort should have a corresponding project plan or project agreement, regardless of the situation. Even if you’re just one developer trying to make the boss happy, you’ll benefit greatly from documenting your efforts before you begin them. Use the following guidelines to set yourself up to successfully control the scope of your project:

1.Be sure you thoroughly understand the project vision. Meet with the project drivers and deliver an overview of the project as a whole for their review and comments.

2.Understand your priorities and the priorities of the project drivers. Make an ordered list for your review throughout the project duration. Items should include budget, deadline, feature delivery, customer satisfaction, and employee satisfaction. You’ll use this list to justify your scheduling decisions once the project has commenced.

3.Define your deliverables and have them approved by the project drivers. Deliverables should be general descriptions of functionality to be completed during the project.

4.Break the approved deliverables into actual work requirements. The requirements should be as detailed as necessary and can be completed using a simple spreadsheet. The larger your project, the more detail you should include. If your project spans more than a month or two, don’t forget to include time for software upgrades during development and always include time for ample documentation.

5.Break the project down into major and minor milestones and complete a generous project schedule to be approved by the project drivers. Minor milestones should not span more than a month. Whatever your method for determining task duration, leave room for error. When working with an unknown staff, I generally schedule 140 to 160 percent of the duration as expected to be delivered. If your schedule is tight, reevaluate your deliverables. Coming in under budget and ahead of schedule leaves room for additional enhancements.

6.Once a schedule has been created, assign resources and determine your critical path using a PERT Chart or Work Breakdown Structure. Microsoft Project will create this for you. Your critical path will change over the course of your project, so it’s important to evaluate it before development begins. Follow this map to determine which deliverables must be completed on time. In very large projects, I try not to define my phase specifics too early, but even a general plan will give you the backbone you need for successful delivery.

7.Expect that there will be scope creep. Implement Change Order forms early and educate the project drivers on your processes. A Change Order form will allow you to perform a cost-benefit analysis before scheduling (yes, I said scheduling) changes requested by the project drivers.

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Which of the four lead time elements discussed on page 279 might cause the most difficulty Answer

Which of the four lead time elements discussed on page 279 might cause the most difficulty? Why? Why might other lead time elements be less important?

Queue time frequently accounts for 80 percent or more of total lead time; it’s the element most capable of being managed. Reducing queue time means shorter lead time and, therefore, reduced work-in-process inventory. This reduction requires better scheduling. Queue time can be compressed with good PAC design and practice.

Reference: Textbook

Out of the four elements queue would cause the most difficult of all. Since queue time is the period of time during which the product awaits transfer to a workstation, undergoes further inspection and subsequent manufacturing processes. It is the single largest element in the overall lead time and its elimination is critical for successful drive toward manufacturing process. The reason why other lead time elements be less important than queue time is because queue is the amount of time a lot must wait at a work center before the operation is set up and production begins.

What does the textbook say about queue time that may not make it the most difficult to manage? And since it may not be the most difficult, which of the remaining three elements is the most difficult to manage? And why?

I think run time would be the hardest to manage, because how ever long it takes to run the lot size is how long it takes(5 seconds per lot or 5 hours per lot), the run time is pretty much set . Managers can not make the machines go faster . Run time is typically the most difficult to manage because you have a plethora of factors that impact how effective the “run” or the “process” is. Some of these include employee skill sets, employee experience, machine/equipment slippage, process slippage, documented procedures vs. tacit knowledge, time of day, time of week, status of customer satisfaction, etc.

I think that all four elements have their own individual challenges and obstacles that will need to be overcome. The Run time does seem to me to be the most difficult to alter or speed up. You can only run a machine as fast as it is designed to handle. There is always the option of upgrading equipment when available to get faster results from them. The likely hood of being able to purchase upgraded equipment is not good so therefore keeping your equipment well maintained and running at optimal speed is the best that can be expected to keep things running smoothly.

With most of the process parameters being fixed, the run time is the most difficult to manage. This is followed by the setup time. These are pretty much technology/process dependent and there is a little room for change/improvement. Mostly, the change would come with the upgrade in the equipment or chane in the process which is a costly affair. Probably the move time and queue time is easy to manange as there is a lot of room for process improvement here and Textbook also mentions that Queue time frequently accounts for 80 percent or more of total lead time; it’s the element most capable of being managed.


If queue time and move time are easy to manage, what does it do to the overall lead time?

Move and queue time can be compressed with good PAC design and practice. Reducing queue time means shorter lead time and, therefore, reduced work-in-process inventory. Queue time represents slack that permits the choice of alternative schedules. This slack can be removed by good SFC practice. With the ability to manage queue time and move time it will allow you to tighten these areas if you need to make up time to meet deadlines. So having areas that can be altered easily or contained will allow you to make up in areas that are not so easily maintained.

However, move time would be the next easiest. Queue time and Move time are the two elements most capable of being compressed. Does this make sense?

Of the four elements of lead time, which element might cause the most difficulty, and why? Also, why might other lead time elements be less important?


What would cause the delays with move time? Also, isn’t the actual delay considered queue time?

I think there is a fine line between queue time and move time because they seem to be ralated to each other in a way. If there is less queue, move time will be minimal. On the other hand, if there is a long queue, the delay cause by the queue will mean that it will take a longer time to transition from one work center to another.

A delay in move time could be caused by an issue that has happened in the next work center such as a machine breaking down or resources not being available to further the production. Move time differs from queue time in that move time is the delay of waiting to be moved plus the time spent moving from one work center to another where as the queue time is the time spent waiting to be processed at the work center. Queue time is the most critical because it usually counts for 80% or more of the total lead time in production. In order to reduce lead time you must reduce queue time or work-in process which requires good scheduling

Jacobs, Berry, Whybark and Vollmann. Manufacturing Planning and Control for Supply Chain Management, 6th Edition. McGraw-Hill Learning Solutions, 2011.

Queue, move, and setup time are dependent on run time. Additionally, with queue time…, it is the only element that does not directly relate to the product being produced. It can be the cause of any of the other 3 elements. Remember, queue time is wait time for something to occur; and that can be caused by delays, lengthier than normal run times, backlogs, etc.

Run time is typically the most difficult to manage because you have a plethora of factors that impact how effective the “run” or the “process” is. Some of these include employee skill sets, employee experience, machine/equipment slippage, process slippage, documented procedures vs. tacit knowledge, time of day, time of week, status of customer satisfaction, etc.

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Provide a description the internal and external feedback mechanisms of the Welfare System Answer

Provide a description the internal and external feedback mechanisms

Provides a description of the information generated from feedback

Discuss how the program has been changed as a result of the evaluation

APA format


Feedback and Evaluation of the Welfare System

Over time there has been a need for policy implementation based on public reasons. Many years of different types of government have found ways to created public policy for issues that needed some applied regulations or laws. The federal welfare system is one of the policies that often needs’ continual evaluation. Over time public policy revealed some regulation and terms from the original thoughts of implementation, to changes that may be useful based on the needs or failures of the original policy. In the process of evaluation once a policy has been initiated there are key factors that tie in the success of policy involving internal and external mechanisms through evaluators. Public policy and program evaluation is a newer addition in the last 50 years to the history of the nation’s chain of attempts to use the brainpower from scholars, research experts, and scientists to further the interests of the state and constituents. Evaluation is asked to provide retrospective assessments (feedback) of the implementation, output, and outcome of government measures in order to create deeper understanding and well-grounded decisions involved through government operations such as the welfare system. The feedback initially grants the reason for policy change in the welfare system or other factors related. This paper details internal and external feedback mechanisms found in the welfare system, information generated from the feedback, and any program changes as a result of the evaluation of the history of welfare.

Original Implementation of Public Welfare Program

The welfare system was first established as a federal program, taking place during the Great Depression where Congress enacted an Aid to Dependent Children, also known as the ADC. This was originally created as a modest program to focus on widows, orphans, divorced or deserted mothers, and their children (Welfare, 2011). The creation had much to do with the loss of the husbands and availability to support the household with only the women home because the men provided the sole income and support of the household. By 1939 the ADC program covered only about 700,000 people and at least two-thirds of eligible children were not covered (Welfare, 2011). By 1960 the welfare program had grown to provide assistance to close numbers of over three million people. As the growth accelerated from the 1960’s and 70’s the program name had been changed to “Aid to Families with Dependent Children” (AFDC), which would again be changed in the future from evaluations. The program changes that were affected in the history through the current implementation of the program from state to state had many factors involved that included internal and external feedback to warrant some changes.

Internal and External Feedback Mechanisms

            Experiences with implementing many programs during the 1960’s, such as welfare, suggested the need for careful appraisal of the impact of such programs (Theodoulou & Krafinis, 2008). Many people believe that the evaluation of a policy is reached at the end of policy cycle. However, according to Theodoulou and Krafinis (2008), “such a viewpoint would neglect the consequences of policy evaluation as well as how the old policy often leads into a new policy cycle.” The federal government wants to know how much money is spent for a particular program, amount of persons to service the program, service cost, and effectiveness of the program in relationship to the cost, known as internal factors. Of all factors the one most important to evaluating a program is whether the program resulted in positive benefit or made the problem worse. Each component of the process is related to a type of evaluation relating to feedback and often uses the impact evaluation or policy evaluation to measure outcomes.

The appraisal and evaluation of program implementation involves internal and external mechanisms. The welfare policy in America comes from an evolution of societal perceptions and expectations driving the “culture” for a deliverance of system that will provide services and benefits to those who need the program. The internal feedback mechanisms involve the budgets, policy actors, reaching intentions of the policy, and policy applications according to each state. Because the budget must be met with good reason evaluation often reveals the ability of keeping the program active or changes needed. The impact evaluation mechanism may be useful at this point to give internal evaluators proper details to compare program outputs and inputs such as the General Accounting Office (GAO) or such offices Congressional Budget Office (CBO) to evaluate the program expenses versus original intent. The ability to establish communication linkages through internal mechanisms can help provide feedback to policy-makers and program administrators at several points of the welfare system and how it is delivered. This includes the front-line, middle managers, and other service providers that may include non-governmental partners. The internal mechanisms provides continual reassessment’s based on the aspect of the original vision and the policies to see what works best and what may need revision.

Although internal feedback mechanisms are vital and found to be a necessity, the external evaluator can also provide valuable input for the policy makers. The value of the information relates to social areas and cultures that depend on the support of the welfare system. How the people detail feedback based on what needs were met can feedback what is needed to improve the program. The external feedback mechanisms reveal the constituents, program users, and outcome of the policy feedback in use, based on social areas or public interest, and economic situations.

Information Generated from Feedback

            Information generated through feedback may be warranted but not always welcomed in practical thought from the management of the program. However, a major advantage of internal evaluation is that insiders will have the detailed knowledge of what is involved in delivering the policy or program (Theodoulou & Krafinis, 2008). One evaluation taken was the need for cost efficiency of the 60’s to push for reform and again in the 90’s. The original implementation of welfare was to help the widow and children but over time through evaluation the policy implementers began to address the issue of other needs for the program. This happened in the early 1990’s when welfare reform of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act was created (Welfare, 2011). This added additional guidelines based on evaluation changes that had become evident by the growth rate of participants on the welfare program through the years.

Based on the internal and external mechanisms of evaluation, change is warranted and the shifting of the welfare policy created a reason to initiate that participants take self responsibility and get a job. There are also disadvantages, such as the insiders may not have the specialized skills to do a good evaluation and evaluation may be affected by the insider’s un-willingness to make major changes. This is because they have a specific stake in the maintenance of the program status such as becoming un-employed and changes suggested may not be welcomed. The program recipients were not happy with the regulation changes set forth by President Clinton because some people would be forced to seek work. Both internal and external evaluators deliver information that communicates’ particulars that stimulate a need for change. Time reveals what may be needed as economic shifting takes place. The programs will endure shifting to create the change even if not be welcome, but needed.

Program Evaluation and Changes

Evaluation is often a controversial and hard-to-understand strategy of public governance, decision-making, and control. The public policy and evaluation of a program is a mechanism for monitoring systems and government programs. The results help constituents and policy actors to act accordingly and move with changes warranted. Times of need in the public policy realm changes often and may have determining factors that place constraints on policies, such as the economic conditions of the nation (unemployment rate) and guidelines of change One of the ways to evaluate program is known as the evaluation rationality. The models of evaluation and theories such as the impact theory relating to how the program impacts or process evaluation theory are all part of social investigation. Pre-experimental Designs and One-shot case studies are both analyses of what happened at some level of the policy process to determine if change is warranted based on the behavior of the condition. The welfare program has changed from being a main support of widows, children, and single mothers to being a conjoined effort program that aids the needy people and poorer areas of society. In 1992 President Bill Clinton was elected and promised to end welfare as people knew it and in 1994 based on evaluation of more than 14.2 million welfare recipients, a figure of change was warranted. The change added that jobs become part of the programs intent and maximum of three years of continual program usage be placed to regulate some cost control and still help the needy. Evaluation has much to offer policy makers, but is used less often due to competing pressures of interest. As the welfare system has changed over the last 50 years continual evaluation reveals that change will be continual based on world factors. This change also indicated that people needed to example more self-responsibility and may generate a more confident level of social existence in that area of society to create a chain of leadership for changing culture. As a result of the evaluation, changes placed were successful and lowered the amount of people who were on welfare overall. Evaluation is the process of distinguishing the worthwhile from the worthless, the precious from the useless; evaluation implies looking backward in order to be able to steer forward better and the changes made to the welfare system demonstrate a nonlinear shift.


Welfare.(2011). Retrieved November 10, 2012, from Almanac of Policy Issues:


Theodoulou, S., & Kofinis, C. (2004). The art of the game: Understanding American public policy making. Belmont, CA: Thomson.