Posted on

A dichotomous key that distinguishes the five classes of the gram- negative Proteobacteria Answer

A dichotomous key that distinguishes the five classes of the gram- negative Proteobacteria.

  1. a. Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria ———————– 2


  1. b. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria ——————————– 4


  1. a. Purple nonsulfer bacteria ———————————– alpha bacteria


  1. a. Purple sulfur bacteria —————————————- 3


  1. a. Oxidize sulfur, sheath forming bacteria, found in sewage, blogs and decomposition areas ———— Beta proteobacteria


  1. b. Oxidize hydrogen sulfide to sulfur and deposit it internally as sulfur granules (usually within invaginated pockets of the plasma membrane); often they eventually oxidize the sulfur to sulfate, largest group of proteobacteria and mostly intracellular pathogenic ————————— Gamma proteobacteria


  1. a. Include predator bacteria that attack other bacteria ———————– Delta proteobacteria


  1. b. Smallest group of proteobacteria, slender gram-negative rods, which can be straight, curved, or helical —————– Epsilon proteobacteria



  1. A dichotomous key that distinguishes the four gram-negative bacteria phyla (i.e. Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Chlorobi, and Chloroflex I)
  2. a. Photoorganotrophic and chemoorganotrophic ——————— Proteobacteria
  3. b. Phototrophic bacteria —————————————————— 2
  4. a. Anaerobic ——————————————————————— 3
  5. b. Aerobic ————————————————————————-4
  6. a. Use hydrogen sulfide, elemental sulfur and hydrogen as electron sources; elemental sulfur produced by sulfide oxidation is deposited outside the cell, obligately anaerobic photolithoautotrophs, non-motile bacteria ——————————————- Chlorobia
  7. b. Can carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis with organic compounds as carbon sources or can grow aerobically as a chemoheterotroph, filamentous, thermophilic, gliding bacteria ———- Chloroflexi
  8. Carry out oxygenic photosynthesis, using water as an electron source for the generation of NADH and NADPH 2, most diverse photosynthetic bacteria group ——————— Cyanobacteria.
  9. A dichotomous key that distinguishes the two gram-positive phyla, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria.
  10. a. High G+ C content—————————- Actinobacteria
  11. b. Low G+C content —————————– Firmicutes
  12. A dichotomous key that distinguishes the remaining bacterial phyla, Planctomycetes, Chlamydiae, Spirochaetes, Bacteroidetes, and Fusobacteria
  13. a. Motile bacteria ————————————-2
  14. b. Nonmotile bacteria —————————— 4
  15. a. Presence of distinctive diderm (double-membrane), and axial flagella (a complex of periplasmic flagella), motile bacteria ————————– Spirochetes.
  16. b. Presence of single membrane, motile or non-motile bacteria ————- 3
  17. a. Obligatory anaerobic, with potent lipopolysachharide and pointed rod ———————– Fusobacteria
  18. a. Obligatory anaerobic, which is mutualistic with mammalian intestine and not pointed rods   —————— Bacteroides.
  19. a. Presence of hold fast, aquatic bacteria found in marine, brackish and fresh water —————- planctomycetes.
  20. b. Absence of hold fast, coexist in an asymptomatic state within specific hosts ——————- Chlamydae.
  21. A dichotomous key that distinguishes the following archaea groupings: Thermophiles, Halophiles, Acidophiles, and Methanogens
  22. a. Archaea group that produce methanogen as metabolic by product ——————————- Methanogen
  23. b. Archaea group that don’t produce methanogen as metabolic by product ———————- 2
  24. a. Archaea that live in high temperature ———————————– Thermophilic
  25. b. Archaea group that live in normal temperature ————————– 3
  26. a. Archaea group that live in low pH ——————————————- Acidophiles
  27. b. Archaea group that live in high pH —————————————- Halophiles



Posted on

Do you think that couples undergoing in vitro fertilization should be allowed to perform whatever genetic tests they wish Answer

Many infertile couples turn to in vitro fertilization to try to have a baby. In this technique, sperm and ova are collected and used to create eight-cell embryos for implantation into a woman’s uterus. At the eight-cell stage, one of the fetal cells can be removed without causing harm to the developing fetus. Once removed, the cell can be genetically tested. Some couples may know that a particular genetic disease runs in their family. They might wish to avoid implanting any embryos with the disease-causing genes. Do you think this is an acceptable use of genetic testing? What if a couple wanted to use genetic testing to select embryos for traits unrelated to disease, such as freckles? Do you think that couples undergoing in vitro fertilization should be allowed to perform whatever genetic tests they wish? Or do you think that there should be limits on what tests can be performed? How do you draw the line between genetic tests that are acceptable and those that are not?



Pre-implantation genetic testing of embryos, through in vitro fertilization (IVF) techniqie, is a type of new process that allows testing and screening of embryos for genetic abnormalities prior to the embryo being transferred to the uterus (implantation). Pregnancy through in vitro fertilization using pre-implantation genetic testing provides the opportunity for the selection of genetically normal embryos that can enhance the possibility of a successful pregnancy, reduce the danger of a miscarriage, decrease the risk of passing definite genetic diseases to progeny and also provides gender selection for family balancing.

Extending the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis to screen embryos for non‐clinical traits such as gender, height and intelligence, raises serious moral, legal, and social issues (Dahl, 2003). I think that these techniques should used only to detect the genetic disorders, not for addition or deletion of traits unrelated to disease, such as freckles, widow peak etc. Unfortunately, there are no rules and regulations that limit the method’s use. I think that government should ban the use of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for addition or deletion of desired traits. Couples undergoing in vitro fertilization should not be allowed to perform whatever genetic tests they wish.

Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis should be allowed only to detect the genetic disorders such as Down syndrome, hemophilia etc. Use of this technique must be limited only for detection of autosomal and sex-linked diseases, not for adding/deleting fashionable traits.


Dahl, E. (2003) Should parents be allowed to use preimplantation genetic diagnosis to choose the sexual orientation of their children? Human Reproduction, 18(7):1368-1369.

Posted on

Assess the effectiveness of the federal government during the Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson administrations Answer

Assess the effectiveness of the federal government during the Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson administrations in enforcing desegregation laws throughout the South. Discuss one event during each of the administrations.


The Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson administrations played very crucial role in enforcing desegregation laws throughout the South. In beginning Eisenhower was not in favor of giving more rights to blacks but due to Supreme Court ruling, he felt that he had a constitutional responsibility to uphold Supreme Court rulings. He did so in 1957, when mobs do not permitted the desegregation of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. In order to take political advantage Governor Orval Faubus order the National Guard to block the entry of the first African American students to Central High. On this occasion, President Eisenhower intervened and orders the Governor Orval Faubus to withdraw the National Guard. Addition to this Eisenhower sent federal troops to Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas to protect the black students from the attacks of mob. Troops stayed for the entire school year, and in the spring of 1958, Central High had its first African American graduate. Eisenhower was the first president who signed the civil rights legislation since the period of Reconstruction after the Civil War. The law provided new federal protection for voting rights. Prior to the passage of bill the people of southern states were need to undergo various huddles like literacy tests, poll taxes despite having constitutional right to vote. President Eisenhower also used his constitutional powers, where he thought that they were clear and specific, to advance desegregation, for example, in federal facilities in the nation’s capital.

Like Eisenhower, President Kennedy also tried to provide equal rights to blacks. In 1963, the President John F. Kennedy issued presidential proclamation 3542 to governor of Alabama. In this proclamation, the President Kennedy ordered the governor of Alabama to allow two African-American students to register for the summer session at the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa. Since Kennedy was a catholic, so he considered the practice of racial segregation morally wrong. When Wallace, governor of Alabama declined to accept the orders of Supreme Court and president, he sent his brother, Attorney General R.F.Kennedy to negotiate with Alabama governor. But the talks failed. On May 21 and again on June 5, the U.S. district court ordered Wallace to allow the students to register on June 11. But again Wallace refused to obey the court orders. Some leaders advise the president top arrest the Wallace but president rejected their advice and decided to wait for Wallace to make the first move. On 11th June, when the students were expected to register, Wallace stood in front of the University of Alabama campus auditorium flanked by Alabama state troopers in order to stop the black students to enter the campus of university. When Wallace refused to let the students enter for registration, Katzenbach phoned Kennedy. Kennedy upped the pressure on Wallace, immediately issuing Presidential Proclamation 3542, which ordered the governor to comply, and authorizing the secretary of defense to call up the Alabama National Guard with Executive Order 11111. That afternoon, Katzenbach returned with the students and asked Wallace to step aside. Three days later, a third black student registered at the University of Alabama campus in Huntsville without interference.


Lyndon Baines Johnson has been credited with being one of the most important figures in the civil rights movement. There were few leaders who were not happy with Johnson policies. Johnson wanted to make America as “Great Society”. It was the Johnson who 1964 Civil Rights Act and the 1965 Voting Rights Act. After becoming the president of USA, Lyndon Baines Johnson announced his vision of a “Great Society” for America. The main objective of the president was to end the poverty and racial injustice. According to president, racial discrimination is a big obstacle of economic growth. He also signed the Elementary and Secondary Education Act in 1965. This act helped the black students to get quality education in schools. The poorer states like Mississippi benefited greatly from the federal funding and by the end of the 1960’s the percentage of African Americans obtaining a high school diploma rose from 40% to 60%

Posted on

One of the excuses for not doing risk management is that it is just common sense Answer

3. Question : (TCO 1) One of the excuses for not doing risk management is that it is just common sense. The answer to that is:
Student Answer: proper application of risk management saves time and money.
it is never too late to do Risk Management.
Risk Management is an investment in the future.
Risk management isn’t common sense to everyone.
Risk Management is common sense.
Instructor Explanation: See Practical Project Management, pg.11.
Posted on

Discuss what kinds of products or services should be procured from outside the organization Answer

Discuss what kinds of products or services should be procured from outside the organization. Also discuss what contract type(s) you might use and why.


The decision to make or buy depends on several factors.  According to the text (p. 844), an analysis should be done as outlined below. While this method can be utilized for just about anything, I know that my organization uses this method for manufacturing of handsets, which in tern the same parts are used for repair operations.  The repair operations have been outsourced but the decision to do so and where certain products are allocated is done by a different method.  I don’t know or understand all of the detail around that part. Make Decision:

  • Less Costly
  • Easy integration of operations
  • Utilize existing capacity that is idle
  • Maintain direct control
  • Maintain design/production secrecy
  • Avoid unreliable supplier base
  • Stabilize existing workforce

Buy Decision:

  • Less Costly
  • Utilize skills of suppliers
  • Small volume requirement
  • having limited capacity or capacity
  • Augment existing labor force
  • Maintain multiple sources (qualified vendor list)
  • Indirect control
Posted on

List the steps involved in selecting and evaluating a nonstatistical or a statistical sample for tests of controls Answer

List the steps involved in selecting and evaluating a nonstatistical or a statistical sample for tests of controls. Identify the professional judgments that must be made associated with each step.

There are nine steps to evaluating the nonstatistical and statistical sample:

  1. Determining the Objectives of the Test Controls: This involves the use of rate of deviation in the test controls to the overall population.
  2. Determining Procedures to Evaluate Internal Controls: This step determines the nature and timing of the audit. The auditors observes how people work and use the controls, inspecting physical documents and electronic files to determine if procedures are effective.
  3. Make a Decision about the Audit Sampling Technique: This step is when an auditor decides whether to use sampling that is nonstatistical or statistical. The smaller system usually uses nonstatistical, larger systems usually use statistical sampling.
  4. Define the Population and Sampling Unit: The population is determined by where the control should be used. The sampling unit show the auditor identifies the program changes made in the population over a period of time.
  5. Use Professional Judgment to Determine Sample Size: Determining size of the sample involves several factors. “The nature of control, frequency of operations, importance of the control, risk assessing control risk, tolerable deviation rate, expected population deviation rate, and population size either direct or indirect below 5000” (Boynton & Johnson, 2006, p. 561 – 562).
  6. Select Representive Sample: If using nonstatistical sample the use of professional judgment is involved. Statistical samples are usually a random sampling out of the population being tested.
  7. Apply Audit Procedures: The auditor determines if controls are operating effectively and are applied right within the sample selected.
  8. Evaluate the Sample Results: This evaluation comes from comparing tolerable deviation rate and deviation rate with quantitative results. The closer the rate the more reasonable that low risk is wrong for the evaluation. The evaluation must determine from the evidence if the rating is low, medium, or high. The qualitative consideration is determining errors in deviation and how the deviation relates to the auditing process in other areas.
  9. Document Conclusion; this step involves documenting test results into working papers and the basis for a conclusion.




Boynton, W. & Johnson, R. (2006). Modern Auditing: Assurance Services and the Integrity of Financial Reporting (8th ed.). Wiley, Hoboken, N.J.


Posted on

Change in Climate of Earth and Challenges faced by Dinosaurs Answer

Change in Climate of Earth and Challenges faced by Dinosaurs


The Earth probably came into existence about 4 – 6 billion years ago. It is presumed that life originated on Earth about millions of years ago and since then innumerable varieties of living beings have evolved. The original temperature of earth is estimated to be around 5,000-6,000 c. There was well formed atmosphere at that time, but it did not contain free Oxygen. With the cooling of the Earth, free atoms in the atmosphere came together and formed inorganic molecules. Further evolution resulted in the diverse forms of existing organisms. The history of evolution of life on Earth is constructed by the study of fossil plants and animals from various strata of the Earth. The most abundant fossils are formed by petrifaction in which hard parts like bones, teeth and exoskeleton of organisms were preserved in the rock strata. By studying different types of fossils in different rock strata and determining their age, geologists have constructed a geological time scale which is the calendar of Earth’s past history.

Mezozoic Era is the “Age of Dinosaurs”. This Era began about 251 million years ago and ended about 65 million years ago. It is divided into three periods: Triassic (251 to 199 Ma), Jurassic (199 to 147 Ma) and Cretaceous (147 to 65 Ma). Reptiles evolved in this era and became rulers of the Earth. They occupied land (Dinosaurs), sea (Ichthyosaurs) and air (Pterosaurs). Dinosaurs evolved in Triassic period and spread during the Jurassic period. However they dominated Cretaceous period. Since then there has been a great transition in the climate and atmosphere of Earth.

Comparison of Climate, Flora and Fauna of Earth today and 65 million years ago (Late Cretaceous period)

Cretaceous period was marked with the growth and spread of Angiosperms (flowering plants). They had dense leaves, stems and branches. Plants like magnolias, roses, willows and redwood trees were found in large numbers. Even grass, oak, maple, grape, el also came into existence.

Due to large number of flowering plants, this period also saw the presence of insects similar to today’s insects. Termites and ants appeared in the late Cretaceous period. Evolution of aquatic organisms is also observed. Crabs, lobsters, sea urchins, foraminifers, nautiluses are some of the marine invertebrates which were found in the Cretaceous period. Appearance of modern sharks was also seen. Recently, it has been found out that Myledaphus bipartitus (a guitar fish) was also present 75Ma (Wilson and Newbrey et al., 2013). Diversification of birds was also seen in this period. However, reptiles dominated the Earth 65 million years ago and this period was marked with large numbers of dinosaurs. Reptiles reached their zenith, including the dinosaurs Triceratops, Tyrannosaurus, Stegosaurus, Apatosaurus (Brontosaurus), and Iguanodon, and ranged from herbivores to carnivores. The flying retiles like pterosaurs and aquatic ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs were also developed. Even the reptiles like snakes, lizards, crocodiles appeared (, 2013). However, mammals were small and rare.

During the start of Mezozoic Era, temperature was warm and dry. Before appearance of Dinosaurs, temperature was around 10-15C and the climate had become warmer by the end of Triassic period. During the beginning of Cretaceous period, Pangea had already drifted apart and it had also split into many continents. About 65 million years ago, near the end of Mezozoic era, North America separated from Europe. This generated new coastline, growing of seasons and thus cooling of global climate took place. Thus during the end of Cretaceous period, lowering of temperature was seen. Thus dinosaurs also had to suffer from climate change.

The temperature of Cretaceous period was warmer than today although there was a cooling trend (Hallam A.J., 1985). The mean temperature during Cretaceous period is estimated to be around 21 degree Celsius which is 6C higher than current mean temperature (15C) (, 2013). There was higher concentration of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide in the Cretaceous period (Sellwood and Price et al., 1994). Mammals have evolved to more complex human beings today as compared to Cretaceous period where there we very less and small mammals. One of the major reasons of extinction of dinosaurs is abrupt cooling of temperature (abrupt climate change). Earth is facing abrupt climate change now also which is one of the reasons for non-existence of dinosaurs today.

Challenges faced by dinosaurs

Apart from abrupt changes in temperature, there are some other reasons which might account for non-existence of non-avian dinosaurs today. An animal like dinosaurs requires large amount of Oxygen to carry out its metabolism due to its large body size. But the concentration of Oxygen has decreased now which might be a hindrance in its survival. Also due to deforestation, there is lack of habitat and prey.


Based on past climate patterns it is be likely that Earth’s climate would be directed back into an Ice Age within the next few thousand years. But current data shows that much of the climate system is in fact heating up due to global warming. Some recent evidences also suggest that dinosaur’s were warm blooded and had survived in a warmer climate than today but the abrupt climatic and geographical changes suggest for the non-existence of non-avian dinosaurs.


Hallam, A. J. geol. Soc. Lond. 142, 433−445 (1985). (2013). Cretaceous period: Evolution of Plant and Animal Life | [online] Retrieved from: [Accessed: 16 Sep 2013]. (2013). Future Forecasts. [online] Retrieved from: [Accessed: 16 Sep 2013].

Sellwood, B., Price, G. and Valdest, P. (1994). Cooler estimates of Cretaceous temperatures.

Nature Publishing Group. 370, 453 – 455

Wilson, A., Newbrey, M., Brinkman, D., Cook, T. and Neuman, A. (2013). Age and growth

in Myledaphus bipartitus, a Late Cretaceous freshwater guitarfish from Alberta, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 50(9): 930-944, 10.




Posted on

From the scenario for Katrina’s Candies, examine the key factors affecting the demand for and the supply of a good in general and Katrina’s Candies specifically Answer

Fundamental Economic Concepts” Please respond to the following: From the scenario for Katrina’s Candies, examine the key factors affecting the demand for and the supply of a good in general and Katrina’s Candies specifically.

Answer – The key factors affecting the demand for a good in general and Katrina’s Candies specifically are:-

    1. Price of substitute goods – Substitute goods are the ones which can be used in place of the similar other good. For eg, Tea and coffee are substitute of each other. If the price of substitute goods rises, then it will lead to rise in the demand of other good. Similarly, if the price of the substitute of Katrina’s candy rises, then it will lead to rise in the demand of Katrina’s candies.
    2. Price of complementary goods- complimentary goods are the one which are used with the consumption of the other good. For example car and petrol are used side by side. Similarly, Katrina’s candies are used with the other complementary good such as chocolate shake or strawberry shake. When the price of complementary goods rises, the quantity demanded of the other good falls.
    3. Income – When the income of an individual rises, the quantity demanded of Katrina’s candy rises because people can afford more of candies now at same price.
    4. Preference or tastes, advertising expenditures – As preferences or tastes of an individual changes towards Katrina’s candy and more people would like to buy Katrina’s candy, then the quantity demanded of Katrina’s candy will rise.
  • Number of buyers – As the number of buyers in the market for a particular product increases, there will be rise in the quantity demanded of the candy.


Distinguish between a change in demand and a change in the quantity demanded (movement along the demand curve). From the above, indicate the factors that are responsible for a shift in demand; and explain how the change is effected by these factors.

Answer – Change in demand consists of two things –

  1. Change in quantity demanded
  2. Change in demand.Change in quantity demanded means when there is change in price of the Katrina’s candy, then there is movement along the demand curve. Only factor affecting the quantity demanded is the price, keeping other things constant. Next is change in demand, it means that there is change in demand of a Katrina’s candy due to other factors affecting demand such as:-

The price of the sugar-free chocolate;

The price of caffeinated coffee;

The price of water;

The median income of consumers; and


The number of buyers in the market.



Indicate the factors that are responsible for a shift in supply; and explain how the change is affected by these factors.

Answer – Shift in supply of Katrina’s candy will occur only when there is change in the factors affecting supply of the good other than price.

Factors such as change in costs such as change in labor or raw material costs will shift the position of the supply curve.

If costs rise, then there will be less production at any given price and the supply curve will shift to the left.

However, if there is fall in the costs of production then more quantity will be produced at the same price.

Other factors affecting the supply of the candy are such as change in the availability of factors, or changes in weather, taxes and subsidies will shift the supply curve to the right.

Posted on

Classification of Costs – BE 5-1 Answer

From the given table, indirect labor can be classified as a variable cost. This is because it increases in proportion with an increase in activity level. Specifically, when production is 2000 units, indirect labor costs are $10,000 and when production increases to 4,000 units, indirect labor increases to $20,000.

Supervisory salaries are fixed costs because they do not change with changes in the activity level. For instance, supervisory salaries are $5,000 when production is both 2,000 and 4,000 units.

Maintenance costs are variable costs. These costs changes from $4,000 to $6,000 when the production increases from 2,000 units to 4,000 units.


Posted on

Assume that the risk-free rate is 6% and that the expected return on the market is 13%. What is the required rate of return on a stock Answer

Assume that the risk-free rate is 6% and that the expected return on the market is 13%. What is the required rate of return on a stock that has a beta of 0.7?


Expected return on the market = 13 %

Market Risk Premium = Expected return on the market – risk-free rate

Market Risk Premium = 13% – 6% = 7%

Required rate of return on a stock = Rf + ( Rm – Rf) * beta

Required rate of return on a stock = 0.06 + ( 0.13-0.06) * 0.7 = 0.06 + 0.07 *0.7

= 0.06 + 0.049 = 0.109 = 10.9%